- Costa Rica
Introduction ::Costa RicaBackground:Although explored by the Spanish early in the 16th century, initial attempts at colonizing Costa Rica proved unsuccessful due to a combination of factors, including disease from mosquito-infested swamps, brutal heat, resistance by natives, and pirate raids. It was not until 1563 that a permanent settlement of Cartago was established in the cooler, fertile central highlands. The area remained a colony for some two and a half centuries. In 1821, Costa Rica became one of several Central American provinces that jointly declared their independence from Spain. Two years later it joined the United Provinces of Central America, but this federation disintegrated in 1838, at which time Costa Rica proclaimed its sovereignty and independence. Since the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred the country's democratic development. In 1949, Costa Rica dissolved its armed forces. Although it still maintains a large agricultural sector, Costa Rica has expanded its economy to include strong technology and tourism industries. The standard of living is relatively high. Land ownership is widespread.Geography ::Costa RicaLocation:Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and PanamaGeographic coordinates:10 00 N, 84 00 WArea:total: 51,100 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 130land: 51,060 sq kmwater: 40 sq kmnote: includes Isla del CocoArea - comparative:slightly smaller than West VirginiaLand boundaries:total: 639 kmborder countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 kmCoastline:1,290 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nmClimate:tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlandsTerrain:coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoesElevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 mhighest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 mNatural resources:hydropowerLand use:arable land: 4.89%permanent crops: 6.46%other: 88.65% (2011)Irrigated land:1,031 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:112.4 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 5.77 cu km/yr (15%/9%/77%)per capita: 1,582 cu m/yr (2006)Natural hazards:occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active volcanoesvolcanism: Arenal (elev. 1,670 m), which erupted in 2010, is the most active volcano in Costa Rica; a 1968 eruption destroyed the town of Tabacon; Irazu (elev. 3,432 m), situated just east of San Jose, has the potential to spew ash over the capital city as it did between 1963 and 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Miravalles, Poas, Rincon de la Vieja, and TurrialbaEnvironment - current issues:deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; coastal marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air pollutionEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: Marine Life ConservationGeography - note:four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose in the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu, erupted destructively in 1963-65People and Society ::Costa RicaNationality:noun: Costa Rican(s)adjective: Costa RicanEthnic groups:white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%Languages:Spanish (official), EnglishReligions:Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%Demographic profile:Costa Rica's political stability, high standard of living, and well-developed social benefits system set it apart from its Central American neighbors. Through the government's sustained social spending - almost 20% of GDP annually - Costa Rica has made tremendous progress toward achieving its goal of providing universal access to education, healthcare, clean water, sanitation, and electricity. Since the 1970s, expansion of these services has led to a rapid decline in infant mortality, an increase in life expectancy at birth, and a sharp decrease in the birth rate. The average number of children born per women has fallen from about 7 in the 1960s to 3.5 in the early 1980s to below replacement level today. Costa Rica's poverty rate is lower than in most Latin American countries, but it has stalled at around 20% for almost two decades.Costa Rica is a popular regional immigration destination because of its job opportunities and social programs. Almost 9% of the population is foreign-born, with Nicaraguans comprising nearly three-quarters of the foreign population. Many Nicaraguans who perform unskilled seasonal labor enter Costa Rica illegally or overstay their visas, which continues to be a source of tension. Less than 3% of Costa Rica's population lives abroad. The overwhelming majority of expatriates have settled in the United States after completing a university degree or in order to work in a highly skilled field.Population:4,695,942 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 121Age structure:0-14 years: 23.8% (male 571,383/female 546,152)15-24 years: 17.8% (male 427,047/female 411,110)25-54 years: 43.6% (male 1,027,179/female 1,018,358)55-64 years: 8% (male 184,292/female 191,396)65 years and over: 6.8% (male 147,615/female 171,410) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 44 %youth dependency ratio: 33.9 %elderly dependency ratio: 10.1 %potential support ratio: 9.9 (2013)Median age:total: 29.6 yearsmale: 29.1 yearsfemale: 30 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.27% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Birth rate:16.25 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 124Death rate:4.44 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 202Net migration rate:0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 61Urbanization:urban population: 64% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:SAN JOSE (capital) 1.515 million (2011)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:40 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 116Infant mortality rate:total: 8.95 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 152male: 9.76 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 8.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.06 yearscountry comparison to the world: 58male: 75.43 yearsfemale: 80.83 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.91 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 139Contraceptive prevalence rate:82.2% (2010)Health expenditures:10.9% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 22Physicians density:1.32 physicians/1,000 population (2000)Hospital bed density:1.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 91% of populationtotal: 97% of populationunimproved:urban: 0% of populationrural: 9% of populationtotal: 3% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 95% of populationrural: 96% of populationtotal: 95% of populationunimproved:urban: 5% of populationrural: 4% of populationtotal: 5% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.3% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 79HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:9,800 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 98HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 500 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 95Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediatefood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrheavectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:23.7% (2008)country comparison to the world: 73Children under the age of 5 years underweight:1.1% (2009)country comparison to the world: 130Education expenditures:6.3% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 32Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 96.3%male: 96%female: 96.5% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 yearsmale: 13 yearsfemale: 14 years (2011)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 39,082percentage: 5 % (2002 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 16.6%country comparison to the world: 79male: 13.5%female: 21.6% (2011)Government ::Costa RicaCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Costa Ricaconventional short form: Costa Ricalocal long form: Republica de Costa Ricalocal short form: Costa RicaGovernment type:democratic republicCapital:name: San Josegeographic coordinates: 9 56 N, 84 05 Wtime difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San JoseIndependence:15 September 1821 (from Spain)National holiday:Independence Day, 15 September (1821)Constitution:7 November 1949Legal system:civil law system based on Spanish civil code; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme CourtInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsoryExecutive branch:chief of state: President Laura CHINCHILLA Miranda (since 8 May 2010); First Vice President Alfio PIVA Mesen (since 8 May 2010); Second Vice President Luis LIBERMAN Ginsburg (since 8 May 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Laura CHINCHILLA Miranda (since 8 May 2010); First Vice President Alfio PIVA Mesen (since 8 May 2010); Second Vice President Luis LIBERMAN Ginsburg (since 8 May 2010)cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 7 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2014)election results: Laura CHINCHILLA Miranda elected president; percent of vote - Laura CHINCHILLA Miranda (PLN) 46.7%; Otton SOLIS (PAC) 25.1%, Otto GUEVARA Guth (ML) 20.8%, other 7.4%Legislative branch:unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 7 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2014)election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLN 24, PAC 11, ML 9, PUSC 6, PASE 4, other 3Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 22 judges organized into 3 cassation chambers each with 5 judges, and the Constitutional Chamber with 7 judges)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges elected by the National Assembly for 8-year terms with renewal decided by the National Assemblysubordinate courts: appellate courts; first instance and justice of the peace courts; Superior Electoral TribunalPolitical parties and leaders:Accessibility Without Exclusion or PASE [Oscar Andres LOPEZ Arias]Citizen Action Party or PAC [Elizabeth FONSECA]Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez]Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or PFA [Jose MERINO del Rio]Libertarian Movement Party or ML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]National Liberation Party or PLN [Bernal JIMENEZ]National Restoration Party or PRNPatriotic Alliance [Mariano FIGUERES Olsen]Popular Vanguard [Trino BARRANTES Araya]Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Gerardo VARGAS]Political pressure groups and leaders:Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate)Chamber of Coffee GrowersConfederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate)Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate)Costa Rican Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCOCosta Rican Solidarity MovementCosta Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEPFederation of Public Service Workers or FTSPNational Association for Economic Development or ANFENational Association of Educators or ANDENational Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEPRerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate)International organization participation:BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Shanon Muni FIGUERES Boggschancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 480-2200FAX:  (202) 265-4795consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Yorkconsulate(s): AustinDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Anne Slaughter ANDREWembassy: Calle 120 Avenida O, Pavas, San Josemailing address: APO AA 34020telephone:  2519-2000FAX:  2519-2305Flag description:five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white elliptical disk toward the hoist side of the red band; Costa Rica retained the earlier blue-white-blue flag of Central America until 1848 when, in response to revolutionary activity in Europe, it was decided to incorporate the French colors into the national flag and a central red stripe was added; today the blue color is said to stand for the sky, opportunity, and perseverance, white denotes peace, happiness, and wisdom, while red represents the blood shed for freedom, as well as the generosity and vibrancy of the peoplenote: somewhat resembles the flag of North Korea; similar to the flag of Thailand but with the blue and red colors reversedNational symbol(s):clay-colored robin known as YiguirroNational anthem:name: ""Himno Nacional de Costa Rica"" (National Anthem of Costa Rica)lyrics/music: Jose Maria ZELEDON Brenes/Manuel Maria GUTIERREZnote: adopted 1949; the anthem's music was originally written for an 1853 welcome ceremony for diplomatic missions from the United States and United Kingdom; the lyrics were added in 1903Economy ::Costa RicaEconomy - overview:Prior to the global economic crisis, Costa Rica enjoyed stable economic growth. The economy contracted 1.3% in 2009 but resumed growth at about 4.5% per year in 2010-12. While the traditional agricultural exports of bananas, coffee, sugar, and beef are still the backbone of commodity export trade, a variety of industrial and specialized agricultural products have broadened export trade in recent years. High value-added goods and services, including microchips, have further bolstered exports. Tourism continues to bring in foreign exchange, as Costa Rica's impressive biodiversity makes it a key destination for ecotourism. Foreign investors remain attracted by the country's political stability and relatively high education levels, as well as the incentives offered in the free-trade zones; and Costa Rica has attracted one of the highest levels of foreign direct investment per capita in Latin America. However, many business impediments remain, such as high levels of bureaucracy, legal uncertainty due to overlapping and at times conflicting responsibilities between agencies, difficulty of enforcing contracts, and weak investor protection. Poverty has remained around 20-25% for nearly 20 years, and the strong social safety net that had been put into place by the government has eroded due to increased financial constraints on government expenditures. Unlike the rest of Central America, Costa Rica is not highly dependent on remittances as they only represent about 2% of GDP. Immigration from Nicaragua has increasingly become a concern for the government. The estimated 300,000-500,000 Nicaraguans in Costa Rica legally and illegally are an important source of mostly unskilled labor but also place heavy demands on the social welfare system. The US-Central American-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) entered into force on 1 January 2009 after significant delays within the Costa Rican legislature. CAFTA-DR has increased foreign direct investment in key sectors of the economy, including the insurance and telecommunications sectors recently opened to private investors. President CHINCHILLA was not able to gain legislative approval for fiscal reform, her top priority, though she continued to pursue fiscal reform in 2012. President CHINCHILLA and the PLN were successful in passing a tax on corporations to fund an increase for security services.GDP (purchasing power parity):$59.79 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 90$56.94 billion (2011 est.)$54.65 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$45.13 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 624.2% (2011 est.)4.7% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$12,800 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 102$12,300 (2011 est.)$12,000 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:15.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 9616.3% of GDP (2011 est.)17.1% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 65.1%government consumption: 17.9%investment in fixed capital: 20.2%investment in inventories: 1%exports of goods and services: 37.7%imports of goods and services: -41.8%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 6.2%industry: 21.5%services: 72.4% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:bananas, pineapples, coffee, melons, ornamental plants, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef, poultry, dairy; timberIndustries:microprocessors, food processing, medical equipment, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic productsIndustrial production growth rate:6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 45Labor force:2.182 millioncountry comparison to the world: 119note: this official estimate excludes Nicaraguans living in Costa Rica (2012 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 14%industry: 22%services: 64% (2006 est.)Unemployment rate:7.8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 896.5% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:24.8% (2011 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.2%highest 10%: 39.5% (2009 est.)Distribution of family income - Gini index:50.3 (2009)country comparison to the world: 2145.9 (1997)Budget:revenues: $6.506 billionexpenditures: $8.501 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:14.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 196Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-4.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Public debt:51.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 6246.5% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):4.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1374.9% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:21.5% (31 December 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 523% (31 December 2009 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:18.21% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3316.15% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$3.871 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 107$3.693 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$20.09 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 85$18.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$22.14 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 78$19.21 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$1.443 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 101$1.445 billion (31 December 2010)$1.452 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:-$2.556 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 145-$2.2 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$11.44 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 89$10.38 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:bananas, pineapples, coffee, melons, ornamental plants, sugar; beef; seafood; electronic components, medical equipmentExports - partners:US 30.7%, China 13.2%, Netherlands 10.4%, UK 9%, Mexico 9% (2012)Imports:$16.75 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 84$15.53 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum, construction materialsImports - partners:US 46.2%, Mexico 6.4%, Japan 6.1%, China 5.8% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$6.857 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 82$4.756 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$13.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 90$10.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$18.61 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 69$16.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.131 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 76$704.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Costa Rican colones (CRC) per US dollar -502.9 (2012 est.)505.66 (2011 est.)525.83 (2010 est.)573.29 (2009)530.41 (2008)Energy ::Costa RicaElectricity - production:9.47 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 95Electricity - consumption:8.53 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 92Electricity - exports:38 million kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 79Electricity - imports:62 million kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 99Electricity - installed generating capacity:2.49 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 94Electricity - from fossil fuels:24.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 185Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 69Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:61.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 29Electricity - from other renewable sources:13.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 13Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 120Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 96Crude oil - imports:7,361 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 79Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 118Refined petroleum products - production:12,090 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Refined petroleum products - consumption:50,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 99Refined petroleum products - exports:737.1 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Refined petroleum products - imports:39,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 76Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 115Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 131Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 81Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 178Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 123Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:6.411 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 117Communications ::Costa RicaTelephones - main lines in use:1.234 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 68Telephones - mobile cellular:4.358 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 114Telephone system:general assessment: good domestic telephone service in terms of breadth of coverage; under the terms of CAFTA-DR, the state-run telecommunications monopoly is scheduled to be opened to competition from domestic and international firms, but has been slow to open to competitiondomestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is availableinternational: country code - 506; landing points for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), MAYA-1, and the Pan American Crossing submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:multiple privately owned TV stations and 1 publicly owned TV station; cable network services are widely available; more than 100 privately owned radio stations and a public radio network (2007)Internet country code:.crInternet hosts:147,258 (2012)country comparison to the world: 78Internet users:1.485 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 82Transportation ::Costa RicaAirports:161 (2013)country comparison to the world: 35Airports - with paved runways:total: 472,438 to 3,047 m: 21,524 to 2,437 m: 2914 to 1,523 m: 27under 914 m: 16 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 114914 to 1,523 m: 18under 914 m:96 (2013)Pipelines:refined products 662 km (2013)Railways:total: 278 kmcountry comparison to the world: 122narrow gauge: 278 km 1.067-m gaugenote: none of the railway network is in use (2008)Roadways:total: 39,018 kmcountry comparison to the world: 92paved: 10,133 kmunpaved: 28,885 km (2010)Waterways:730 km (seasonally navigable by small craft) (2011)country comparison to the world: 75Merchant marine:total: 1country comparison to the world: 154by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2010)Ports and terminals:major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) Puerto Limon; Pacific Ocean - CalderaMilitary ::Costa RicaMilitary branches:no regular military forces; Ministry of Public Security, Government, and Police (2011)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 1,255,798females age 16-49: 1,230,202 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,058,419females age 16-49: 1,037,053 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 42,201female: 40,444 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:0.8% of GDPcountry comparison to the world: 149note: includes public security and police expenditures (2012)Transnational Issues ::Costa RicaDisputes - international:the ICJ had given Costa Rica until January 2008 to reply and Nicaragua until July 2008 to rejoin before rendering its decision on the navigation, security, and commercial rights of Costa Rican vessels on the Rio San Juan over which Nicaragua retains sovereigntyRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 10,305 (Colombia) (2012)Illicit drugs:transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America; illicit production of cannabis in remote areas; domestic cocaine consumption, particularly crack cocaine, is rising; significant consumption of amphetamines; seizures of smuggled cash in Costa Rica and at the main border crossing to enter Costa Rica from Nicaragua have risen in recent years (2008)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
Look at other dictionaries:
Costa Rica — Costa Rica … Deutsch Wörterbuch
Costa Rica — Costa Rican. /kos teuh ree keuh, kaw steuh, koh /; Sp. /kaws tah rddee kah/ a republic in Central America, between Panama and Nicaragua. 3,534,174; 19,238 sq. mi. (49,825 sq. km). Cap.: San José. * * * Costa Rica Introduction Costa Rica… … Universalium
Costa Rica — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda República de Costa Rica … Wikipedia Español
Costa-Rica — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Costa Rica (homonymie). República de Costa Rica (es) … Wikipédia en Français
Costa rica — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Costa Rica (homonymie). República de Costa Rica (es) … Wikipédia en Français
COSTA RICA — Le Costa Rica, ouvert sur deux océans, le Pacifique et l’Atlantique, situé entre le Panamá au sud et le Nicaragua au nord, occupe une superficie de 50 900 kilomètres carrés en Amérique centrale. Il abrite une population de 2 941 000 habitants… … Encyclopédie Universelle
COSTA RICA — COSTA RICA, republic in Central America; general population 3,956,507 (2004), Jewish population 2,500. History Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by Indians and in colonial times was considered unattractive to immigrants. Its inhabitants were… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Costa Rica S.A. — Costa Rica S.A. Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Costa Rica S.A. Título Costa Rica S.A. Ficha técnica Dirección Pablo Ortega Producción Pablo Ortega Guión … Wikipedia Español
Costa-Rica  — Costa Rica (span., d. i. Reiche Küste), Republik in Centralamerika, 3000 QM., grenzt im N. an Nicaragua, im O. an das Caraibische Meer, im SO. an Isthmo, im S. u. W. an den Stillen Ocean; ein terrassenförmig bis zu 4000 Fuß hoch aufsteigendes,… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Costa-Rica  — Costa Rica (Gesch.). Schon 1522 aufgefunden u. früh von den Spaniern besetzt, gelangte C. R. zu hohem Wohlstande, der jedoch durch Überfälle von Corsaren u. die Anlegung der Handelsstraße von Panama später sehr litt. Unter spanischer Herrschaft… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Costa Rica — [käs΄tə rē′kə, kôs΄tə rē′kə, kōs΄tə rē′kə] country in Central America, northwest of Panama: revolted against Spain in 1821; became an independent republic in 1848: 19,730 sq mi (51,101 sq km); pop. 2,417,000; cap. San José Costa Rican n., adj … English World dictionary